How to Shoot Like a Sniper

Snipers are regarded as a mysterious, almost super-human entity of militaries around the world. The ability to hit a target from thousands of yards away is a quality sought out by many people, military and non-military alike.

military sniper in position
a military sniper in position

“How do they do it?” you may ask. In this segment, we’ll discuss the basics that allow you to move without being seen, long-range dynamics, shooting fundamentals, and embracing your inner sniper.

First things first, real snipers have years of training and experience at their disposal. Many United States Army snipers start out as Infantrymen, and then go to a recon platoon. From there, they get selected and sent to a sniper school.

One of the many mottos used by Army snipers is “Suffer Patiently, Patiently Suffer.”. Breaking down this motto, it simply means being a sniper takes a lot of patience (and frustration).

Being a sniper and learning long-range shooting isn’t about just pulling the trigger. A lot of sniper training revolves around stealth, and being able to operate alone (or small teams). To shoot your target, you need to be able to get to your shooting position unseen, and leave unseen.

The biggest mistake a person can make when stealth is critical, is impatience. You need to dedicate time, and lots of it, to properly engage your target (and get out) while remaining hidden.

Sniping in a Survival Context

Sniping as a skill set is often sneered at if it is being learned for employment by civilians in a civilian context, i.e., not professional military or law enforcement settings.

Although much sniper lore and so called wannabe snipers in general are cringe-worthy to our modern sensibilities, the bottom line is that any skill set is just that, a set of skills for solving particular problems in an efficient way. 

Additionally, the province of most defensively minded civilians is on immediate action responses to pressing, in your face threats, not the surgical or sometimes surreptitious removal of a threat or potential threat from extreme range.

When we think of self-defense, we think muggers on the street or home invaders barging in through the front or back door of our home at 2:00 in the morning. We probably don’t imagine lying in wait for a suspected or known criminal to come ambling down the street before picking him off with a rifle from a concealed position.

This is entirely natural, and indeed the correct context to view defense of self and home. However, let us remember what we are preparing for as preppers.

We are getting ready for the gravest possible extreme. at best, a situation where we will be completely on our own with no possibility of a backup or salvation from law enforcement or other government actors.

At worst, we could be facing a paradigm shift after the collapse of society and living in what is effectively a frontier state until such time as civilization begins to coalesce once more.

This means that the state of the game will change, as it were, and what once was lawful and prudent may no longer be adequate to ensure a good outcome for ourselves and our families.

Indeed there may be no laws left to violate. Note that I am not, in any way, advocating that you act in an evil or amoral way, only that you consider the fact you might need to use every advantage in order to stay safe.

If you or someone in your survival group is able to act as an effective sniper you will have a powerful intelligence gathering asset as well as a formidable force multiplier that could potentially stop a larger and far more dangerous fight before it starts.

Suffice it to say that nobody feels gung-ho about carrying on when a single shot breaks from nowhere and either wounds them or kills a comrade. That is sobering stuff to endure, and only the most fanatical or well drilled fighters will press on under such a threat.

The lingering threat of an effective sniper also extracts a terrible emotional toll on adversaries who might be operating in the area, debilitating them mentally and physically from remaining on edge.

Whether or not you are living or planning on surviving in wide open spaces or the dense sprawl of the urban jungle, effective sniper capability is a valuable tool in your toolbox.

Considerations for the Unconventional Sniper

A civilian sniper, be they a member of a ragged band of survivors, motivated partisans or something else entirely best fit under the banner of “unconventional marksman.”

Because they are not a component of a military, paramilitary or police unit they will lack much of the surrounding support architecture that so-called professional snipers enjoy.


An unconventional sniper is far more likely to be truly on their own than working as a part of a sniper spotter team, or as part of a larger unit. This can afford the unconventional sniper a certain amount of flexibility and discretion, but can make meaningfully employing their talents more challenging.

Generally speaking, an unconventional sniper is far more likely to work at shorter ranges and closer to home or base than a professional sniper, or will be employed in a longer term role watching important approaches to areas that the group consider critical.

Furthermore, it will be comparatively rare for an unconventional sniper to have a known, clearly delineated target that he’ll be looking out for. Potential threats will likely be anything but uniformed or obvious, and those arms survivors could just be passing through his area of observation but then again they might not.

Can the unconventional sniper call in such a threat? What will anyone back at base be able to determine that he cannot? In this way, the rules of engagement will indeed be about as clear as mud much of the time.

That being said, an unconventional sniper could operate much closer to home and hearth, working as a sharpshooter that can provide decisive overwatch when dealing with unknown contacts for any number of reasons. allowing the group diplomats or leaders to have a, quite literal, guardian angel looking over their shoulder is comforting indeed in such times. 

In ongoing times of trouble, times where a sniper may need to make an engagement against a known or potential threat, any survivors who are allowed to escape or otherwise scurry away and talk of their encounter may well likely serve the group interests by scaring off other erstwhile intruders through rumor alone.

As mentioned above, no one feels hard charging about going into a country occupied by an effective sniper or snipers.

Successful Hunters will Have an Advantage

If you are considering nominating or training up a sniper for your group, look hard at successful hunters. If you have lots of hunting experience, consider yourself. Hunters and snipers have much in common when it comes to the necessary attributes to ensure success.

Skill with a rifle is one thing, but hunters must also be patient, observant and willing to tolerate considerable discomfort while remaining still if they want to be successful. a working knowledge of camouflage and fieldcraft is generally also a prerequisite.

All of these skills add up to a significant chunk of sniper specific skills, particularly when employed in the environment where the hunter is comfortable and used to operating.

And while it is true that deer, other animals and humans are not quite the same when it comes to the refinement and employment of their senses that they might use to detect a lurking threat, most of the lessons definitely cross-pollinate.

If nothing else, a hunter might be used in a sniper adjacent role simply for their skill with a rifle, knowledge of the terrain and aptitude for moving around quietly and discreetly. The rule of thumb for the guerrilla and unconventional survivor alike is to use what you have as best as you are able.

Lacking any seasoned hunters, another sharpshooter might be able to train up adequately to fulfill the role, such a competition shooter or a dedicated long-range hobbyist. I would argue that the field skills of the hunter are more important (and harder to develop quickly) than sheer marksmanship.

Don’t Get Too Attached to a Given Weapon

The best snipers will always become intimately familiar with their chosen weapon system, which includes the optic and ammunition.

As discussed elsewhere in this article, it is ceaseless repetition and recording of data on previous engagements that will build up the surety and confidence of a sniper to make a shot against a given target in a given environment.

However, the likelihood that any given civilian survivor could be separated from his weapon, either by loss, destruction, confiscation or simple misadventure is quite high.

Unlike a military or police sniper who is ultimately operating under the umbrella of a gargantuan budget and will usually be able to requisition another functional weapon and optic package in short order, the unconventional sniper probably does not have such a luxury.

Accordingly, the unconventional sniper should also strive to be well-rounded with a variety of weapon systems and be able to establish hasty dope or even extrapolate reasonable margins for error based on previous experience.

The unconventional sniper may not have access to their highly customized Remington 700 or A.I. rifle with top of the line Leupold glass, the latest Barrett sniper system or any other such expensive and extraordinarily capable rifle and optic package.

you might be making do with nothing more than a rack grade AR-15, an SKS or even a bog-standard lever action rifle with bargain-bin ammunition to boot.

None are sniper rifles, and likely none of them will even meet the performance metric of a sniping rifle under the most lenient standards, but it could nonetheless be the only thing you have and you must strive to make use of it.

It is better to understand and be able to operate within the limitations of any given rifle that you might lay your hands on instead of cursing the loss of your one-of-a-kind precious. Adapt and overcome!

Always Remember That Camouflage is Seasonal and Situational

One of the most important reminders for any unconventional sniper is the necessity of constantly updating your camouflage, not just seasonally, but also situationally.

Changing conditions and situations might mandate changing camouflage if you want to remain undetected, and doing this in the field without immediately giving away your position could be difficult or impossible.

Remember that seasonal changes to vegetation and undergrowth along with ground cover will greatly dictate what camouflage is appropriate.

Although there are many off-the-shelf camouflage patterns that are prescribed for various environs around the country, most folks don’t know that there are seasonal concerns for those picks.

One that is excellent in the spring and summer might be pitiful in the fall and winter and vice versa. This requires careful study and analysis.

Additionally, one should spend the time to really understand the color palette of the terrain that you are living and surviving in so that field expedient camo solutions in the form of paint and other materials can be chosen with a high degree of fidelity and effectiveness.

Remember! The lion’s share of the work when it comes to sniping is remaining undetected entirely, and it is camouflage combined with good field craft skills that will accomplish this. 

The Sniper’s Rifle

Snipers use a lot of different weapons to engage their target. While caliber does make a big difference when it comes to range, weight can also be a factor when you’re walking long distances.

Five pounds can feel like a hundred when you must sprint up a hill to evade your enemy, so being “tacticool” is not your friend when adding unnecessary attachments to your weapon.

Remington 700 .308

This bolt-action rifle is highly revered in the sniper and sport community due to its incredible range, and light-weight design. Weighing in at 6lbs, 12oz empty, it is one of the lightest rifles in its class. The Remington 700 .308 can reach out to almost 1km (1,000 meters).

With each round averaging 45-75 cents per round, you won’t break the bank if you want to stock up. Each magazine holds 4-6 rounds (depending on the magazine), so we suggest that you have at least 5 extra magazines in your BOB in case you’re gone for long. Average cost: $400-$800 (depending on specs).

Suppressors are also an option for the .308, but not necessary. During one of the events at sniper training, candidates must position themselves within 200 yards of an observation post and shoot a blank round without being detected.

They don’t have suppressors in training, and can still pass, so you don’t need a suppressor in real life. If you want to shoot like a sniper, you need to be able to remain unseen like a sniper.

Savage 110BA Stealth .300 Win Mag (Winchester Magnum)

Chris Kyle was arguably the most well-known snipers in the world. With the pentagon confirming over 160 kills, he knew what he was talking about when it comes to rifles. The .300 win mag was his favorite cartridge to shoot with, and for a good reason.

The .300 win mag can reach out to 1,200m-1,500m accurately, as long as you adjust your scope for windage and elevation (we’ll go over that later). Average price per round: $1.50-$2.00.

The bolt-action Savage 110BA Stealth .300 Win Mag is very pleasing to the eye as well, most snipers refer to this weapon as “eye candy”. It features a one-piece picatinny rail (grooves that help add different attachments), muzzle-brake, and a GL-SHOCK buttstock.

The muzzle-brake assists in dispersing gasses that come out of the barrel when you fire your rifle. By dispersing the gasses, it reduces the rise of the barrel so you can reacquire your target more quickly.

The GL-SHOCK buttstock reduces the recoil felt by you, should you fire multiple rounds, your arm won’t feel like you just got kicked by a horse. Average cost: $1,400-$1,650.

Remington Model 700 XCR Long Range Tactical Bolt Action Rifle .338 Lapua

The XCR (Extreme Conditions Rifle) is made for incredibly rough wilderness conditions. This makes the rifle a prepper’s golden ticket to bugging out for days on end in the wilderness. It features “TriNyte” coating to all major components, giving it an incredible defense to outdoor conditions.

The .330 Lapua is a great caliber for long-range engagements, reaching out to between 1,750m-2,350m depending on the grain and weather conditions. Average price per round: $3.50-$4.00.

The Model 700 XCR also features an Ops Inc. Muzzle Brake, which assists in lowering the rise of the barrel after firing. With a 5-round detachable magazine, the XCR is a great fit for anyone who expects to bug out long-term.

If the name “Extreme Conditions Rifle” doesn’t reel you in, maybe the reviews will. All rifles have positive and negative reviews, but this one takes the cake for positive reviews. If you have the money, we highly recommend investing in an XCR. Average cost: $1,540.

Don’t get too wrapped up in the gun, it’s not the hammer, it’s the man swinging it. One thing to remember about any rifle you may invest in, cleanliness is key.

Even though the rifle may not do all the work, it certainly makes a difference if it’s reliable or not. What makes reaching out to 1km/0.62 miles (or more) easier, is the optic that you use.


Scopes (or, “glass” as referred to by snipers) are what can make (or break) a long-distance shot. Even the most rudimentary scope provides enormous optical advantage over the naked eye.

Not all scopes are created equal, that’s why it’s important to do your research when considering what you will mount on top of your rifle.

While you can always go out to Walmart and buy a cheap scope, don’t be surprised when it loses its zero after a few days of rigorous shooting. Next, we’ll go into the top two scope brands we recommend for your sniper rifle.


Leupold scopes have been around since 1947, and have been the pioneers of fog-proof scopes ever since. As a trusted name in optics, Leupold also has a lifetime warranty for all of their scopes.

A huge benefit of this warranty, is they offer it for Leupold scope owners even if they were not the original owners. From a budget standpoint, this puts a preppers mind at ease if they bought a scope from a private party, and it malfunctions. All you have to do is send it in, and they’ll replace it for free.

Leupold also offers Custom Dial Systems that allow you to create your windage and elevation dials before ordering them, so you can tailor your scope to match your rifle.

With MoA (minute of angle) adjustments, their dials help you achieve pinpoint accuracy, all while remaining fog-proof. Their prices vary, but remain under $1,000 for simple rifle scopes while retaining reliability.


Nikon is a brand most known for their cameras, but that doesn’t put them out of the game for optics. Nikon scopes are well revered for their clarity, with users boasting up to 98% light transmission (clarity in a nutshell).

With a brand that is known for cameras, you know that lenses are their specialty. While most Nikon scopes are inexpensive (under $500), you can find some that are in the $1,000 range and up.

Most Nikon scopes have a BDC (bullet drop compensation) reticle, meaning they have circles (or lines) below the crosshairs that you can use to estimate where the bullet will impact at certain distances.

To pinpoint where the bullet will drop at a distance, you need to research the type of round that you will be firing. Nikon is a very revered scope brand, and is loved in the hunting industry due to their inexpensive (and crystal clear) optics.

Before we get into bullet dynamics, we need to go in-depth on how to get to the position that you’re going to shoot from, unseen. You could know every mathematical equation there is to know about shooting, but if you can’t even get to where you’re going to shoot without being seen, you’ve already lost the battle.

The best way to from point A to point B undetected, is a method called “low crawling”. This method is also referred to as “skull dragging”, because in order to properly perform this technique, your head is literally dragging on the ground.

Getting to Your Position

This is where a good sense of direction, and patience come into play. When low crawling, you’re not looking in front of you. Because of this, you’ll need a great sense of direction so you don’t go too far off the pre-determined path to your fighting position.

A good way to practice this is swimming. The traditional “front crawl (freestyle)” swimming stroke utilizes your body’s natural sense of direction, so you can concentrate on swimming faster, and not concentrate on where you’re going.

To perform a proper low crawl, lay completely flat on your stomach with your head turned on its side. You want to be as low to the ground as possible, so your feet are also flat.

Move your non-dominant leg upwards as if to bring your knee to your arm, and move your dominant arm forwards with your elbow bent and your forearm directly above your head. Do this painfully slowly though, the eye detects movement, and you don’t want to be seen.

If you move slowly enough while concealed, the untrained eye won’t know the difference between you, and the vegetation around you.

Once you’ve accomplished this position, pull yourself forward with the arm that’s above your head, and push yourself with the leg that you brought upwards. Your rear end should never leave a horizontal plane, and your head should drag across the ground on its side the entire time.

Do not alternate legs, you need your rifle in one hand (barrel facing forward), so you would end up using one side of your body. Using only one side of your body will ultimately make you move forward with a slight curve, potentially leading you off your pre-determined path.

A good rule of thumb for low crawl speed – 100m should take you 20-30 minutes if done at the proper slow pace. You don’t have to low crawl the entire time, only when you are within 300-400m of your position.

Otherwise, if you’re spotted running to your shooting position, the enemy can tell the direction in which you’re running and coordinate a counter-attack. It takes a lot of core, and lower body endurance to properly low crawl long distances. Make sure you incorporate these types of exercises into your workout routine.

Once You’re in Your Position

You’ve went through all the steps to camouflage yourself, painfully low crawled hundreds of meters, and are finally at your concealed position. This is the most crucial part of concealed shooting, so don’t waste all your hard work by hastily setting up.

You need to remain in a focused, steady state-of-mind while you set up your shooting position. Bipods work extremely well while remaining prone (laying down), however they’re not necessary. You can also take a knee in your position if the foliage is too thick to see while prone.

Make sure you pack a shooting stick, and camouflage it the same way you did your rifle, in case taking a knee is necessary.

When you’re in your concealed position, don’t position yourself so you’re sticking out of the foliage. Instead, retreat into the foliage so (even with binoculars) your enemy only sees the natural vegetation.

Your barrel should only stick out a maximum of six inches from the foliage you’re concealing yourself in. Ideally, your barrel will be completely submerged in the vegetation along with yourself. Not all vegetation is clear enough to accomplish this, however, so this is where you’ll find out just how well you camouflaged your rifle.

Make sure you take controlled, shallow breaths when you’re fully set into your position. Use the time you have when you’re still prone to catch your breath from low crawling. Once you’re on a knee, a deep breath will become obvious to anyone looking for a threat (vegetation doesn’t take deep breaths).

Congratulations, you’re finally set into your position, and fully concealed. Now you’re finally ready to do what you came here to do, squeeze the trigger.

The Fundamentals of Marksmanship

There are 4 basic fundamentals of marksmanship that every sniper follows. You can’t expect to build a house without a solid foundation, and it’s the same for shooting.

To learn the more advanced shooting techniques, you need to make sure you perfect the basics. If you don’t, no matter how much money you spend on a rifle, or how many equations you put to practice, you will never be as effective as you would be if you perfected the following basic fundamentals.

Steady Position

The first fundamental of marksmanship is getting into a steady position. To be able to effectively engage a target at long range, even the slightest unwanted movement can make the difference between hitting your target, or missing it.

To get into a steady position while considering a long-range shot, first you need either a bipod (if you’re going to rest your rifle on a surface), or a shooting stick (if you’ll be kneeling or standing).

Make sure you get a bipod that’s durable, I recommend “Harris” bipods because they’ve worked really well for me in my long-range engagements. To get into the prone, lie flat on the ground, with your body in a straight line behind your weapon.

The only exception to this rule, is if you’re shooting from behind cover from the prone. In this case, you may position most of your body behind cover, and the rest of it outside of cover just enough to fire your rifle accurately.

A common mistake many “wannabe” snipers make, are the way their feet are positioned. Your feet must be flat on the ground, do not stick your toes in the dirt with your heels in the air. This gives your body a more solid, stable shooting position.

It may be uncomfortable at first, but after a few days of practice, it becomes much easier. If you’re wearing a ghillie suit, you’ll also want to take into consideration the vegetation around you.

Your shooting-arm elbow should be tucked in close to your body, the chicken-wing method is hard to hold for a long time, making it unstable. Your support-arm elbow should be a little further out from the weapon compared to your shooting arm, but it’s mostly shooter’s preference on what you can hold for a long time.

With a bipod in place, you may use your support hand and place it on the top of the buttstock of your rifle. This allows the shooter to have a more comfortable cheek-to-stock weld.

Your head should rest comfortably on your buttstock (or hand). The cheek-to-stock weld, or “cheek weld” is a term used by shooters to describe how your cheek should rest on the buttstock.

To get a good cheek weld, you should rest your head on the buttstock so that the skin on your face below your cheek pushes up above your cheek bone while it’s resting on the stock.

This allows your head to remain more steady on the buttstock after a round is fired, so you can reacquire your target faster without having to find it again.

Your shooting hand should grip the rifle with the same grip you would use to shake someone’s hand. Any harder, and you’ll cause the rifle to tremor unnecessarily.

A “death grip” is to be avoided at all times, and is especially likely to spoil a shot should it be applied subconsciously immediately prior to discharge, often occurring with hard-kicking rifles. Any lighter, and you risk your shot being off-target because of the movement of the rifle after you fire it.

Tip – pay attention the next time you shake someone’s hand, and remember the grip strength that you use.

Sight Picture / Sight Alignment

Without a proper sight picture, you’ll miss your target by what seems like a mile. It’s very important to focus a lot of attention on all the fundamentals, but this one takes a lot of practice. This fundamental becomes a lot easier when you have an optic. Since most of you will, we’ll only briefly go over this fundamental for iron sights.

For iron sights, line up your front and rear sight to get you on target. You should not focus on the rear sight after they are aligned. Instead, for a brief moment, focus your eyesight on the front sight to double check that it’s still on target. After you’ve confirmed this, your primary focus should be the target itself.

With an optic, focus your sight on the crosshairs to get you near your target. Then, once the crosshairs are on target, focus your eyesight to the target only. Don’t worry, you’ll still be able to see the crosshairs even when you don’t focus on them.

A great method of shooting is to practice firing with both eyes open. This will help the eye looking through the scope not get fatigued as quickly. Once your dominant eye becomes fatigued, you risk missing your target.

Controlled Breathing

Breathing has a very important factor in shooting, even in close or medium range engagements. Everyone’s body is different, but the breathing fundamental remains the same for everyone. If you find that this technique doesn’t work for you, odds are you were taught wrong, and old habits die hard.

Like I’ve mentioned in my camouflaging article, quitting smoking will really help you as a prepper. In this instance, it will help you control your breathing better, as you won’t be out of breath as quickly.

Every shot you fire from your rifle should be as accurate as a surgeon’s scalpel. In order to accomplish this, you’ll need to slow your heart rate. When you’re about to kill somebody, your heart naturally races.

To calm this natural reaction, don’t think of them as a person, but as a target. To slow your heart rate, you’ll need to slow your breathing. If you’re hiding in vegetation, you’ll want to take slow, shallow breaths so you can conceal your position.

Once you feel your heart rate drop, you’ll be able to feel the beat in your neck, or in your ears. This is the golden ticket to a well-placed shot, because every beat of your heart causes your rifle to move ever so slightly.

When you’re about to shoot, time your shot so that when you squeeze the trigger, the gun fires in between your heart beats on an exhaled breath. If you do this, you’ve maximized the efficiency of controlled breathing for your long-range shot.

Trigger Squeeze

You don’t “pull” the trigger, you “squeeze” it. Think about it, pulling something could mean jerking it, squeezing it is more slow and controlled. This is exactly how you want your trigger squeeze to be, slow and controlled. It should be so slow, in fact, that the rifle should surprise you when it fires.

There’ll be some of you that think “you shouldn’t leave killing something to surprise”, once you put your finger on that trigger with a target in the crosshairs, you’ve already committed to killing it.

If you’re not familiar with shooting, the best part of your finger to squeeze the trigger with, is the meaty-portion of the tip of your index finger.

I don’t believe in squeezing the trigger with the crease in your finger, because you rotate your grip slightly as you squeeze. Any kind of unnecessary movement when you shoot can mean the difference between hitting your target, or missing it.

There’s a saying in the sniper community that you’ve probably heard on the popular movie “American Sniper”. That saying is “Aim small, miss small.”, and it’s very true. If you aim for the chest pocket on a shirt, you might miss the pocket but still hit your target.

If you aim for the shirt and miss, you’ve missed your target. Snipers don’t usually go for the popular “head shots”. First, it’s unnecessary, it’s a small target and if you miss, you’ll give your target a chance to run. Second, chest cavity shots can be just as effective, but with a much larger target.

Leading Your Target vs. Trapping Your Target

There are two effective methods to successfully hit a moving target. The first, and most effective method, is called “trapping”. The second method is called “leading”, this method is much more difficult than trapping, but effective if you follow the correct formula.

Sometimes trapping can’t be used because of different factors, so it’s imperative that you practice both methods. Before we get too into detail about the methods, there’s some sniper jargon we need to familiarize you with.

Speed of the Target – As the speed of your target’s movement increases, so must your lead. The faster your target moves, the more distance they will travel by the time the bullet reaches them.

Angle of Movement – Not all moving targets are going to run completely in a straight line left to right. A target moving at a 45-degree angle away from you is going to cover less distance than a target that moves strictly from left to right at a 90-degree angle by the time your round reaches them.

Range to Target – When your target is at a greater distance, your lead must increase. This is due to the time it takes the bullet to travel from your rifle to your target.

Wind Adjustment – If the wind is blowing East, and your target is heading East, your lead adjustment must increase. If the wind is blowing West, and your target is heading East, your lead adjustment can decrease. I could explain why, but it seems self-explanatory.

Also pay close attention to wind speed. A strong gale can dramatically affect point of impact (and thusly your holds), especially when firing slower cartridges.

Milliradian (or Mil) –  A unit of measurement used with most adjustable sights. Most sights adjust .1 mil per click. Each mil equates to an adjustment different at different distances. Since most optics adjust at .1 mil per click, make sure you adjust accordingly. 1 mil =

  • 1m at 1000m
  • 10cm at 100m


This is the most effective, and simple way to shoot a moving target. Utilizing this method allows the shooter to remain still, with his weapon stationary. This increases the probability of hitting your target because you don’t have to steady a moving weapon.

Trapping means you have the scope at a pre-determined “mark”, and you fire your shot when your target reaches your mark. If you can, use this method when engaging a moving target.

The downside of this method, is if your target is at such a great distance that you don’t feel comfortable using the trapping method. Sometimes, it’s better to use math to determine a more accurate shot.

The good, however, outweighs the bad for the trapping method. It allows you to keep your rifle in the same steady position while you wait for your target to reach your mark, thus making it the most stable method to shoot a moving target.


Leading your target (while not as easy as trapping) is a very effective way to engage your target on the move. Leading means you set your crosshairs at a certain distance ahead of your moving target, and once you feel that your calculations are correct, you fire off your round.

There’s not a whole lot to describe about leading your target, since most of leading is math (which we’ll get into). If you can, use the trapping method, as you’ll have a more stable firing position.

How to Calculate Your Lead

In order to properly engage your moving target, you need to understand the math that’s involved in calculating your lead. You don’t want to leave hitting your target to chance, and that’s why I’ll be providing you with the specific equations to calculate your lead.

Remember, this is an overview, any detailed specifics should be researched extensively and practice over a period of months.


  • Time of flight (seconds) x target speed (in feet per seconds) = Lead (in feet)
    • Then take the lead x .3048 = Meters
    • Then take meters x 1000 / divided by range = mil. Lead

Time of Flight

  • 100m = .1 sec / 200m = .2 sec / 300m = .4 sec / 500m = .7 sec / 600m = .9 sec / 700m = 1 sec / 800m = 1.3 sec / 900m = 1.5 sec / 1000m = 1.8 sec

Target Speed

  • Slow patrol = 1fps (feet per second) / fast patrol = 2fps / slow walk = 4fps / fast walk = 6fps / run = 11fps

If your rifle doesn’t use mils for adjustment, it most likely uses MOA (minute of angle). Like I’ve mentioned before, there’s a lot of math involved at accurately engaging your target at long distances. Don’t worry, with practice, these calculations become second nature.

Tip – make a card with calculations on it, so you can bring it with you for a quick reference. Bringing a simple calculator can also save you the hassle of simple math.


Bullets do not fly in a straight line between your rifle, and your target. Once they leave the barrel, they fly in more of an arch shape. Because of this, you need to adjust your sights accordingly.

Understanding ballistics is important, because the more you understand about your rifle (and type of round), the more effective you’ll be. Your rifle must be an extension of your body, not just a tool you use to shoot things.

Since there are way too many combinations of calibers and grain types, you can reference the website here to determine your specific bullet ballistics. This website determines ballistics for most types of rounds used in today’s rifles. Ballistics also come into play when we get into angle of attack, shooting at higher altitude, and the Coriolis Effect.

Coriolis Effect

To break it down, the Coriolis Effect is how the Earth’s rotation affects a bullet’s trajectory at distances over 1000m.

Before you pull out your calculators, I won’t be going into specific calculations regarding the Coriolis Effect because there are way too many factors for each caliber that have an effect on your calculation. Odds are, you won’t be engaging targets over 700m anyways.

In other words, you’ll hear many amateurs talking about the Coriolis Effect, but none of them have perfected the calculations needed to shoot over 1,500m. If you feel yourself debating whether you should shoot over 1,000m or not, don’t.

Range Estimation

Range estimation is very important in long distance shooting, because not everyone has a range finder. There are ways to estimate range using the binocular / mil ratio method, but as a prepper, bugging out might mean you can’t bring equipment like that. Instead, we’ll go over the two basic methods to range estimation.

The first method is the easiest, the “football field” method. For up to 500m, estimate how many football fields that you could fit between yourself, and your target. Once you’ve estimated that, multiply it by 100. That will give you your estimated distance in meters.

For distances greater than 500m, find a halfway point between you and your target, and estimate how many football fields there would be between you, and your halfway point. Multiply that number by 100, and you’ll have your estimation in meters.

The second method is the “flash to bang” method. This method works the best at night, because you need to see the muzzle flash of the weapon firing in the distance. Once you see the muzzle flash, immediately begin counting “one-thousand-one, one-thousand-two” until you hear the “bang”.

Then, take the number you counted, and multiply it by 330. Sound travels at 330 meters per second (mps), so once you multiply it, you’ll have a pretty accurate range estimation. If your count brings you past 10, start over at 1. That will bring you over 1000m.


There are multiple factors that come into play when it comes to shooting like a sniper. The ones I covered in this article are the factors that come into play most often.

In my experience, I have learned that most long-range shots aren’t anything over 700m, so don’t go out and practice hitting a quarter off a fence post at 1000m right away.

Practice the basics, and perfect them. Doing this will increase your accuracy greatly at longer distances, and over time you’ll realize that even the smallest mistakes can make you miss your target.

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