If you’re new to prepping, you probably heard the term bug out location before (BOL, for short). As you can probably guess, it’s the place preppers will bug out to when SHTF.
But what is it, exactly? And why do you need one? Let’s try to give a clear definition.
A bug out location is a piece of land, house, apartment or shelter that you can evacuate to in case of a disaster or emergency, and it is different than your home (your bug in location).
However, most people think about permanent shelters, which is only partially correct. Some think about temporary shelters away from home when they refer to BOLs, but we’re just gonna focus on permanent retreats. We’re gonna leave temporary wilderness shelters for some other time.
Just in case you’re wondering about my own permanent bug-out location, it’s 52 miles away from where I live. It’s in a very small village with population of about 200, hidden between some of the most beautiful hills you’ve ever seen. That’s where I spent all my summers as a kid, living with my grandparents.
In what follows I want to talk to you about finding your own bug out location to hide at when society starts to crumble. We’re gonna cover a lot of aspects so let’s not waste anymore time!
Table of Contents
Getting there is the hard part and largely dependent on the natural or man-made disaster that occurs. Depending on the distance, you can get to it by foot or by using a bug out vehicle.
You’re gonna need to know as many different routes as possible to reach your BOL. Keep in mind that some of the main routes may be blocked due to calamity or by the police/national guard, so you absolutely need to have alternate routes to reach it. Secondary roadways and even the rail tracks are two options that come to mind.
Ideal Bug-Out Location Requirements
If you’re contemplating purchasing land for your retreat, let me give you a few pointers.
The ideal BOL should be far enough from your current location to keep you safe from the SHTF, but close enough so you can get to it.
Ideally, you should be able to get to it within a day, whether by foot or by car. 50 to 100 miles should be far enough if you’re planning to get there by car, 25 to 50 miles if you’re planning to get there on foot.
If you happen to have something low-key really close and/or you don’t have the money for a car, the second option will do. I should add there are other cheap bug out vehicles you can use, such as:
- mountain bikes
- go karts
- or even inflatable boats!
Caveat: some people want their location to be as far away as possible because many disasters such as hurricanes affect entire regions so it would make sense to go as far away as possible. I agree with this logic as well but it’s up to you to decide where you want your BOL to be.
You want your location to be at least 50-100 miles off any coast. If a tsunami hits, you don’t want to be in its way nor in the way of those who will flee in your direction. It should also be at least 100 miles away from any nuclear threat.
In addition, it shouldn’t be more than 1 tank of fuel away. You might not have time to refuel or gas stations may be closed.
Tip: try looking at satellite imagery taken at night. This way, you’ll easily spot dark areas where the head count is low.
If you’re currently living in a city, the ideal of living in complete isolation might be too big of a step for you… so consider living in a small town, preferably at a respectable distance from other neighbors.
But if you want complete security, then building something like a log cabin in the woods that no one knows about is ideal. If possible, make sure your BOL is not visible from above, either, in case a helicopter or a plane scouts the area.
Land with readily-available natural resources is going to cost more, so you need to set up a budget, and to make sure you include other things besides the actual purchase, things like building or upgrading the survival retreat, stockpiling, building a barn, and so on.
It needs At least 2 Water Sources
A river on your property is a Godsend gift. A well, or the capacity to dig one, is mandatory. However, you don’t want your shelter to be visible from the river or from other water sources such as lakes and ponds. Make sure no one can spot your house or cabin from any point around those water sources.
You should also check the rainfall averages and think about means to harvest that water.
Caveat: if there’s a river nearby, there’s always the likelihood of a flood happening at some point. Even Tara Dodrill got flooded in the spring of 2019 even though much of her survival retreat is on high ground. You can never be to careful…
It Should Be Able to Comfortably Accommodate Everyone
If you have 3 kids and a spouse, that’s 5 people who’ll live there for months or even years. This isn’t just about square feet; you need to make sure everyone will have a place to lay their head at night, a place to study, a place to play (for kids), and have more than one bathroom if you have a numerous family.
You Should Be Able to Raise Livestock
Cows need a lot of food and water but chickens, goats, and sheep are a lot easier to keep. Nigerian dwarf goats are some
Consider things like soundproofing your chicken coop, maybe even soundproofing it. Go for quiet chicken breeds, Nigerian dwarf goats that are some of the easiest goats to raise, and also free-ranging your livestock so you end up with better quality eggs and meat.
You Need Access to Firewood
If there are trees on your property, you could build your retreat behind them, so you can’t see it from the main road. And if there’s a forest nearby, that’s free fuel for your fireplace that’ll keep you warm during winter.
If you don’t have trees on your property, consider some “fast” growing trees, such as the American Elm, and Sycamore, as well as thorny bushes. Just make sure you don’t build your house too close to the trees, to keep it safe should a wildfire occur.
You Should Be Able to Grow a Garden
1/4 acre should be enough to feed an entire family, but the quality of the soil is also important.
if the climate or land isn’t suitable for gardening, consider greenhouses, hoop houses and container gardening.
A Big Plus: Fish and Game Availability
You never know when you’ll run out of food or, even worse, you can find your bug-out location ransacked when you get to it. Having a food supply that doesn’t require tending is recommended.
Wild Edibles and Medicinal Plants
Post-collapse, doctors may not be available. Wild plants such as purslane, chicory, dandelions, jewelweed and dozens more. These plants can bring in precious calories when food may be scarce.
Set Up Several Routes to Go In and Out
The last thing you want is to be trapped or ambushed in a home invasion at your BOL. You need several evacuation routes, and to check them out periodically to ensure that they are clear.
The land should be reasonably flat
If it’s not, you’re gonna have a hard time building on it. Keep in mind you might also need to build a shed, a butcher shop, a chicken coop, and plant crops and veggies. Here’s a photo of Tara Dodrill’s shed below:
The land should not be at risk of being affected by natural disasters…
…such as flash floods, mud slides, avalanches, tornadoes, hurricanes, volcanoes, wildfires. Ask around to find out the last time a natural disaster like that happened.
Don’t be surprised if the previous owner is hesitant about giving you a straight answer. Do additional research by searching for disasters that’ve happened in the past.
You should know that reported natural disasters have increased a LOT in recent history:
The Land Should Not Have Any Legal Issues
This is very important. Sometimes you might be surprised to find out you can’t grow livestock or that you don’t own the water rights, or even the timber on your property.
You Need Year-Round Access to Your Location
For example, if your property is inaccessible during winter and disaster strikes during this season, getting there by vehicle may be impossible and even getting there on foot could be difficult.
The location should not be visible from the main road. My grampa’s house is a good example since it’s positioned about 160 yards from the main road. Not a lot, I know, but the secondary road is curvy so you’re not able to see the house from the road. (There is also a very large walnut tree blocking the view of the house).
photo above: an LP/OP outpost, very useful if you have a large property, and want to spot enemies from a distance.
Types of Retreats
A number of establishments make good permanent bug-out shelters:
- a brick and mortar house
- a log cabin
- a bug out RV camper that you can park on your property
The first two options are the best and most popular, but deciding between the first and the second is a matter of budget and ability to build one yourself.
Some people prefer to build true fortresses using nothing but sandbags. These are called earth bag domes and you should watch this VERY interesting video on how to make them:
Of course, if you’re up to it and have the budget, you can always build a bunker. Bunkers have somewhat of a bad reputation due to the fact that they’re expensive and not necessarily better at protecting you, but at the very least, you should have a safe room.
Plus, if you’re surrounded by your attackers and have no place to go, they could just smoke you out or wait until you need water or food.
My advice to you is this, if you really have the money to build a bunker, get two properties and build two bug-out cabins so you have two alternatives to go to if needed. Ideally, you want these locations to be in different directions from where you’re currently located.
Building Your Bug-Out Retreat
This is obviously not simple. It gets more complicated if you also need to lay a foundation so I’m not going to go into details here. One important thing you need be aware of is that you might need to clear the land first as there might be trees on it.
You should design your house in such a way that it faces south. Keep in mind that you might not have electricity post-SHTF so you’ll need all the sunlight you can get. Do the same with your barn and chicken coops.
Of course, one of your main concerns would be to properly insulate it. During winter, keeping as much of the heat inside as possible is going to be a top priority. Construct it right from the beginning so you can save fuel later on.
Your next concern should be to properly hide your food, valuables, and survival weapons. If someone finds your stockpile while you’re not at your BOL, they’re going to have all the time in the world to ransack it. Be sure to spread your stockpile around your house, yard, barns, and so on.
Don’t forget to slope your roof. When snow piles up, it’s going to exert a lot of pressure on your roof. Unless you’re there every time to shovel the snow off of it, you risk its collapse.
Preparing Your Bug Out Location
When you get to your BOL during a SHTF event, you probably won’t have anything more than a half-empty bug out bag. All your possessions from your primary location may be lost and the food and water you had was consumed getting there.
Needless to say, you need to have food and water ready and available. The trick is to split your food and water supplies between your home and your bug-out locations because you never know in which one you’ll end up living post-collapse.
Speaking of water, you should definitely have means to harvest rainwater because it’s free and you can never have too much of it. Have the containers in place to collect all the rainwater they can from the rooftop.
Next, you’re gonna need plenty of fuel. Propane, wood, coal, even solar panels, you should have as many options to heat your location as possible.
One thing you want to be really careful with is the possibility of house fires and wildfires. You should always have means to put out a fire. Always have non-potable water on hand and even a few fire extinguishers.
Keep in mind the fire can start in your shed. This happened to one of my neighbors a few years ago – me and a few others were already pouring bucket after bucket of water onto the fire before the fire marshals arrived.
Next, you’re gonna make sure you hide your preps really well. Since you won’t be there most of the time, you need a way to make sure no one finds them even if they do decide to break in.
Last but not least, think about protecting your retreat, both now and after TEOTWAWKI. Without the rule of law, people might eventually take a shot at you, your supplies, or at your family. You need to:
- block most entry points on your property, so you’re never taken by surprise
- set up perimeter defenses such as:
- motion sensors
- security cameras
- early warming EMP-proof systems such as bells
- boobie traps
- fox holes and strategic places around the house that have good visibility and will allow you to shoot
If you’re going to store some of your stockpile at your BOL, you need to focus on long shelf-life foods, the kind that don’t need to be rotated that often. Keep in mind that when you’ll bug out, there’s only so much space you could carry with you.
Focus on two categories of items:
- and long shelf-life foods.
|toilet paper||plastic and paper cups, plates|
|manual and electric tools||extra knives|
|alternative survival weapons||guns and ammo (careful how you hide these)|
|toiletries||cookware and kitchen supplies|
|fishing and hunting equipment||first aid supplies|
|zipper and trash bags||rope/cordage|
|work gloves||…and more.|
Of course, maintaining a food supply at your bug out location is not easy. You’ll need to take regular trips to your BOL to move food and water back and forth, to take new supplies, and to bring back food that’s about to expire so you can eat it.
Some of the long shelf-life foods to consider include:
|canned food||cocoa powder|
|powdered eggs||…and more.|
Ideally, you should be using this location on the weekends to just go there, relax, and practice living off survival food. That way you’ll get yourself familiar with the surroundings as well as with all the various roads to get there.
Think About Multiple Bug Out Locations
No, I’m not saying you should purchase 3-4 pieces of land, build log cabins and start a stockpile on each. That could get really expensive. Any place you can stay for a few days can be considered a bug out location:
- at your relatives in a different state
- on a piece of land that may belong to a relative, friend or neighbor where you can set up your tent
- a place in the mountains or the woods where you hike or camp
- an abandoned building where you used to play as a kid
Set Up Survival Caches
Since you won’t be there most of the time, you should hide as much of your stockpile as possible by:
- setting up underground caches in the form of PVC pipes
- setting up secret hiding locations (think fake books, and other hiding places inside coffee tables, kitchen furniture and even walls!)
Here’s a video we made to show yo how to make a PVC pipe cache:
Know Your Neighbors
Even if your closest neighbors are 500 yards away, you should still meet them. They probably share the same ideas you do about survival so they have no problem with preppers or with people walking around with a firearm.
Get to know them and start a post-apocalyptic home defense plan. Plus, your neighbors might be able to check your house from time to time when you’re not there to make sure everything’s ok.
Start a Prepper Library
With no internet and, possibly, no power grid, you’d be glad you kept precious survival knowledge printed out. Besides, no looter will ever steal these books, they’ll mostly be looking for food and valuables, not “how-to” information.
Make Sure You Have Cell Phone Signal
I know, I know, cell phone towers will be non-functional after SHTF. But what if they will work? If you’re not getting cell-phone signal with your current carrier, consider switching, or keep both.
Besides wood, what other fuel will you be using to cook, heat yourself and to warm up water to take baths and so on? You’ll need to properly stockpile all of your fuel to avoid a disaster.
Questions to Ask Yourself
Will You Be Moving There Permanently?
This is a good question to ask. If you’ve been contemplating moving somewhere quiet for a long time or if you simply want to be far away from civilization when it happens, you’re probably gonna want to move there full time. If not, you should keep in mind that you’ll only be visiting your location every once in a while and things might happen while you’re away.
The most dreaded scenario will be the one where you get there and your location has been looted. Protecting your BOL is just as important as protecting your home.
Analyzing these maps takes a long time. Luckily, we did the hard work for you and found a few very good places you might want to look for land. And if you want to a pick a certain states, we tell you which are the best ones.
How Will You Cook?
This is important because you don’t want the smoke or smell to tip off people nearby that someone’s nearby, and that you have food. The smell of food could be carried up to a mile away, and the smoke can be seen from several miles.
There are ways to mitigate this risk, such as:
- building a Dakota fire pit to hide the flames
- making fire under a tree so the branches dissipate the smoke (don’t try this if you’re a newbie, there’s a risk the tree could catch fire)
- cooking indoors and making sure the kitchen behind closed doors
- cooking at night so the smoke isn’t visible
Do You Own an RV Camper?
If you do, you probably don’t need a house on your land, unless if you have the budget of course. if that’s your bug out vehicle, you can park it on your survival retreat, but consider that RVs aren’t ideal bug out vehicles. They can fit more gear, yes, but they’re big and slow.
In the long run, we should all try to move to our bug out locations, because it’s the only place to maximize our chances of survival. This takes time and, for many of us, it takes money, because you can’t afford to lose your job and the income it brings.
Nevertheless, a bug out location can have huge benefits even before SHTF… it’s a place for you to stay away from most if not all of the post-apocalyptic madness, to teach your kids self-reliance and homesteading, to homeschool them, and the garden you grow can bring you free, fresh, organic food for life.
So what’s next? Well, you can start by opening up google maps and look for possible villages to find properties. It’s 100% free. You can also start a new Excel document to write down all the properties you find. Add not just the price per square foot but also the advantages and disadvantages.
Another thing you can do is download and print this PDF checklist that will ensure you keep in mind the most important traits of any bug out location.
last update: 07/25/2019 by Dan F. Sullivan