Ham radios are fantastic communication devices in SHTF situations where the internet, phone lines, a CB radio, and other forms of communication won’t work. But, just how far can you talk with your radio, and what’s the typical ham radio range?
You can realistically get about 2-18 miles (3-29 kilometers) of range with a handheld Ham radio, and hundreds or up to 4,000 miles if you have a particularly powerful base station.
However, the actual range you can get from your Ham radio in the real world can vary substantially from this estimate.
Like anything Ham radio-related, the answer to how far you can communicate with your radio isn’t as simple as it might seem. The world of Ham radio is notorious for being a bit confusing to newcomers, so learning the basics, like how far you can talk with your radio, can easily seem like an insurmountable task.
In fact, there are a whole lot of “ifs, ands, or buts” involved with giving estimates for the range of any radio and Ham is no exception.
To demystify the concept of Ham radio ranges, up next, I’ll walk you through everything you need to know about what affects your transmitting distance so you can better understand what to expect from your own radio.
What Affects Ham Radio Range?
As I’ve mentioned, Ham radios have an average range between 2 miles and 18 miles.
But, if you’ve recently purchased a Ham radio (especially a handheld unit), the manufacturer might claim that you can get substantially more range than 2-18 miles. In fact, many 2-way radio units claim as much as 36 miles of range.
So, what gives? How far can you talk with a Ham radio?
The fact of the matter is that the range stated on a radio unit is the “theoretical range.” But, we rarely, if ever, experience conditions on Earth that are as perfect for radio transmission as what’s used to calculate “theoretical range.”
This means that the question of maximum Ham radio range isn’t easy to answer because there are a whole lot of different factors that affect how far you can communicate with a radio.
Therefore, instead of telling you that you can simply expect a range of 2-18 miles with your Ham radio and leaving the conversation at that, here are 4 key factors that affect your transmitting and receiving range.
Signal Type & Frequency
Within the United States, Ham radio operators can use 26 different “bands” or groups of frequencies with their radios.
According to the National Association for Amateur Radio, this includes everything above 1.8 Megahertz to 275 Gigahertz. This is a pretty wide range that technically covers HF, VHF, UHF, SHF, and EHF frequencies.
In fact, depending on the band that you use, you can talk with your friends on the other side of town or communicate with people across the world.
So, choosing the right frequency for your communications will have a major impact on your range. That being said, the majority of Ham radio operators stick to VHF and UHF frequencies.
Here’s what you need to know about how choosing to use either VHF or UHF affects your range:
VHF, or “very high frequency” radio bands are between 30-300MHz. These bands are frequently used by maritime, military, emergency, and air traffic control systems. It’s also used for FM radio broadcasting (AM radio actually uses HF or “high frequency,” which is 3-30 Mhz).
The main benefit of VHF is that it has longer wavelengths than UHF. This means that they can generally travel further and with less interference.
If your main goal for your radio is to transmit as far as possible, you might be saying, great, sign me up for VHF!
However, the disadvantage of VHF is that it’s not as effective in areas with buildings or other tall obstacles. Therefore, VHF is best for use in long-distance communications in outdoor areas where the receiving radio is more or less within the line of sight of the transmitting radio.
UHF, or “ultra high frequency” radio bands are between 300MHz and 3GHz, so they’re one step up in the frequency ladder from VHF. This means that they have shorter wavelengths and more energy than their VHF siblings. UHF is more commonly used for cell phones, GPS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and walkie-talkies.
When compared to VHF, UHF has the added benefit of being more reliable in areas with lots of buildings or tree cover. Conversely, UHF is less effective over long distances, especially in mountainous areas.
UHF vs VHF: Which To Choose?
What this means for you, when it comes to Ham radio range, is not that you should definitely choose VHF over UHF because VHF is better over longer distances. In fact, to maximize the range of your radio, you need to operate on a frequency that’s appropriate for your location.
So, if you live in a rural area with lots of open space, you’ll likely get a better range with VHF. In an urban area, however, your range will generally be better if you opt for UHF instead.
The height of an antenna has a major impact on the amount of range that you can get with your Ham radio. This is especially true at frequencies above 2MHz, as anything above this frequency, works on line-of-sight transmission and can’t bend around the curvature of the Earth.
Therefore, your maximum communication range with a Ham radio is the distance to the horizon line based on your antenna height.
With that in mind, your distance to the horizon (in miles) is calculated at:
D = √H x 1.415
… where D is the distance in miles and H is the height of your antenna in feet.
So, someone using a handheld radio that’s positioned at 5’ off the ground would have a theoretical horizon of 3.16 miles. Meanwhile, a fixed station antenna that’s 20’ high would have a theoretical horizon of 6.33 miles.
Increasing the height of your antenna is one of the easiest ways to extend your range. However, your communication range is limited not only by the height of your antenna, but by that of the antenna receiving your transmission.
This means that two radio stations that are transmitting to each other will be able to communicate over a longer range than two handheld radios. As we’ll see, however, this “theoretical horizon” distance is just that: theoretical.
Therefore, you can think of this calculation as an indication of the maximum possible communication distance rather than what you should expect every time you use your Ham radio.
Ham radios can also have different power modes that affect the maximum distance they can transmit. To get the maximum range you should change the device to a mode with the most power output.
Radio signals aren’t very good at traveling through solid objects, such as mountains and buildings. Indeed, trying to talk through obstacles is a surefire way to reduce the range of your radio communications.
This is why we almost never communicate as far as our maximum theoretical range says we should be able to. Every time a radio wave has to pass through an object, the strength of the signal decreases, thereby shortening your overall range.
As I’ve mentioned, UHF frequencies are better at traveling through buildings and other objects in urban environments because of their higher energy wavelengths.
What this means for you, as a Ham radio operator, is that to maximize your range, you need to choose the appropriate frequency bands for your location. Additionally, it’s important to understand the limitations that your surrounding terrain has on your potential communication range.
The final factor I’ll touch on when it comes to Ham radio range is the “strength” or “power” of your radio. Signal strength is measured in watts, and there’s a big difference in strength between a handheld unit and a typical commercial radio station.
While commercial stations will broadcast between 50,000 – 100,000 watts, handheld radios usually have just 0.5-5 watts of power. There are also laws about the signal strength of amateur radios, and Ham radios can generally have up to just 5 watts of power.
Simply put, the higher the signal strength (or watts) of a radio, the further it can travel. So, a 5 watt Ham radio is going to be able to transmit further than a 2 watt Ham radio with the same antenna height and in the same terrain.
How Does a Ham Radio Compare To Others?
A ham radio is just one type of radio that is able to transmit over long distances. However, it has the longest range amongst those you can use. Ham radio is often compared to other systems such as CB, GMRS, and CB radios. These systems have their pros and cons when compared to a Ham radio, with each being effective in their own ways.
|Service||Max Power||Licensing||Max Range|
|Ham||Up to 1500 Watts||General, Technician, Amateur Extra||Worldwide|
|FRS||0.5 Watts||None||2 Miles|
|GMRS||50 Watts||Family License||Up to 30 Miles|
|CB||4 Watts||None||4 Miles|
Using a minimal amount of power at about a half watt, the range of these units will only extend around two miles.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations require no extra license to use these radios (unlike HAM radios) since they’re low power, even though they use some of the same frequencies as a GMRS radio. The best examples of these are the two-way radios that you find in plastic packaging at your local hardware store.
General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS)
GMRS is the runner-up to Ham radio in terms of traveling distance. It is a UHF band service and requires a license in order to use it. Fortunately, it is a family license as opposed to the Ham radio individual licensing. You also won’t have to apply for multiple license levels as you would with a Ham radio.
GMRS allows for voice transmission and even simple messaging, although it falls short of a Ham radio by maxing out at 50 watts. To compare, a Ham radio can reach upwards of 1500 watts.
GMRS is also limited by range, which is typically upwards of 30 miles depending on terrain.
Citizens Band Radio (CB)
You won’t need a general license or technician license with a CB radio because it’s limited to only 4 watts of power. This means at full power a CB radio will only have a transmission range of about 4 miles. The main problem with these radios is that if there is a hill or some trees blocking the signal then it would effectively get distorted or lost.
For easy reference here is a chart outlining the main differences between each type of radio service.
Just How Far Can My Ham Radio Reach?
While you can typically get between 2 and 18 miles of range, it should be clear by now that the answer to this question isn’t as simple as it may seem.
In reality, the range of your Ham radio depends on the frequency you’re using, the height of your antenna, the obstacles and terrain around you, and the wattage of your radio, among other factors.
So, when you buy a radio unit and it claims to have a range of 36 miles, remember that this is a theoretical range in ideal conditions and not the norm. What’s more important is that you understand what affects the range of your Ham radio and what you can do to improve your range for better performance when SHTF.
HAM Radio FAQ
Want more information on Ham radios and how far their frequency range is? Here are some of the most common questions people ask…
Yes, RF signals can travel through water, however, the frequency range is affected by how conductive the water is.
Yes, there is a repeater attached to the ISS that helps boost Ham signals.
No, CB radios only work up to 4 watts, FRS (Family Radio Service) up to half a watt, and GMRS is limited to 50 watts of power.
Gabrielle is a professional outdoor educator, mountain guide, and survival expert with a passion for helping others be prepared for whatever might come their way. She is a polar guide in the Arctic region and is an experienced wilderness medicine instructor/EMT.